❃ Waters – Hydrology Evidence of 6000+ Years Earth Age ❃
❃ Waters – Hydrology Evidence of 6000+ Years Earth Age ❃
(34) Deltas and alluvial fans confirm a young earth. The rate of formation of deltas of ancient rivers such as the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Yellow River, the Ganges River, the Sindhu River in the Himalayas, the Tiber River in Rome, and the Nile River prove that they require less than 3000 years to be formed at their present level. This is consistent with the Global Flood of Noah dating and not millions or billioins of years ago.
(35) The present salinity, salt concentration, in the oceans proves that the oceans age is less than 5000 years old which is consistent with the global flood of Noah. The ocean contains now a concentration of salt in the amount of 3.5% (35 g/L or 599 milliMol).
God described the water cycle in the Bible, such as in Genesis 2:6. According to the water cycle (hydrologic cycle), the waters wash the ground and the rocks thereof and flows back into the oceans as rivers. The movement of the water causes weathering: chemical and physical. It dissolves soluble minerals, such as NaCl, from the rocks into the oceans. The water dumps over 450 million tons of sodium salts into the ocean. Only 27% of this sodium manages to get back out of the sea each year. 73% accumulates in the oceans every year. Evaporation and wind spray remove a small amount of salts from the ocean and deposit these on the land. The amount of sediment removed in this salt spray process as aerosols is estimated at 0.29 billion tons each year. The ocean is an open system. But the amount of salt on earth can be considered as a fixed or closed system.
Fundamental factors affecting the salinity of the oceans: (1) We must assume that the starting point would be 0% salinity. (2) The ocean is not an eternal reservoir of salt; there is flux in and flux out. (3) Plate tectonics shapes our Earth, sea beds rise and evaporate, leaving large salt deposits. (4) Oceanic plates subduction and melting into the Earth. (5) Volcanoes erupt and spew material containing salt that becomes incorporated into the land and becomes part of the erosion and final deposit into the oceans. (6) The rates of erosion, solution, rainfall, and runoff cannot be measured over large amounts of geologic time. (7) 86% of global evaporation and 78% of global precipitation, (distilled - rainwater), occur over the ocean.
(8) Sodium input (flux-in): (a) Weathering, (b) Leaching of sodium ion and dissolution of rocks, especially clays, feldspars by runoff and rivers, (c) Submarine water flow leaches and dissolves sodium ion for rock porous layers, (d) Ocean floor sediments release much sodium, (e) Hot springs on the ocean floor (hydrothermal vents), (f) Volcanic dust also contributes some sodium. Austin and Humphreys calculated that about 457 million tons of sodium now comes into the sea every year. (9) Sodium output (flux-out): (a) Salt spray—small droplets of seawater escape from the ocean, (b) Salt crystals, deposited after evaporation of oceanic waters in local shallow areas, (c) Ion exchange: clays can absorb sodium ions and exchange them for calcium ions, (d) Some sodium is lost from the ocean when water is trapped in pores in sediments on the ocean floor, (e) Certain minerals with large cavities in their crystal structure, called zeolites, can absorb sodium from the ocean. Austin and Humphreys calculated that about 122 million tons of sodium leaves the sea every year. The flux-out is 26.696%. Therefore, the rate of deposit of Na+ ion is 457-122 = 335 tons per year. Actually, other scientists discovered that the rate is higher than 335 tons per year.
Rainwater contains 0% sodium salt. River waters contain about 0.05% sodium salts. Brackish waters contain 0.05-1.7% sodium salts. Ocean waters contain 3.5% sodium salts (3.2-3.7%). The concentration varies slightly depending on the temperature, the depth and the location.
The calculation of the age of the earth from the salinity of the ocean may have a large margin of error, but it is valid scientifically for its qualitative results. The ocean covers 71% of the total area, and contains enough water to cover the whole planet to a depth of 2.7 km (1.7 miles) if the surface were completely flat.
Example of the Calculations:
One cubic kilometer = 1.0E+9 cubic meter = 1.0E+12 Liters
The amount of water in the oceans = 1.347E+9 cubic kilometer = 1.347E+9 x 1.0E+12 = 1.347E+21 Liters
Current amount of salt = 35 grams of sodium ion per liter which is 3.5%
Total amount of salt in the ocean assuming it began as distilled water = 35 x 1.347E+21 = 4.795E+22 grams Na+ = 4.795E+16 tons of Na+
Total amount of salt in the ocean assuming it began as fresh water with 0.5% Na+ concentration = 30 x 1.347E+21 = 4.041E+22 grams Na+ which equals 4.041E+17 tons Na+
Influx of Na+ into the oceans = 4.57E+8 tons of Na+
Outflux of Na+ from the oceans = 1.22E+8 tons of Na+
The annual rate of Na+ depositing into the oceans = (457 – 122) x 1.0E+6 = 3.35E+8 tons of Na+
The Age of the Oceans assuming that it started as distilled water = (4.795E+16) / (3.35E+8) = 143,134,328.35821 years = 143 million years
The Age of the Oceans assuming that it started as fresh water with 0.5% Na+ concentration = (4.041E+16) / (3.35E+8) = 120,626,865.67164 years = 120 million years.
Dr. Russell Humphreys and Dr. Steve Austin calculated the age to be less than 62 million years. Remember this is not the exact age of the oceans, but it is the maximum possible with the data we have. These results refute the evolution theory which claims that the earth and the oceans began 4.5 billion years ago. When we have accurate and complete data, we will find the age of the earth to be about 6,000 years old.
(36) World's oldest salt water lake proves a young age. In 1984, scientists measured the amount of salt accumulated in Australia's largest salt lake, Lake Eyre in South Australia. They found that it would have taken about 73,000 years to accumulate, assuming a flood occurred every 50 years. However, the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service stated that all the area is flooded on average once in 8 years. This reduces the time period for salt accumulation to less than 12,000 years.
Further evidence from fossils suggests that inland Australia was much wetter in the past, being covered in rain forest during the Tertiary Period. This reduces the age of accumulation of salt in the lake to less than a few thousand years. The calculation would give the lake a minimum time for accumulation of 1,500 years and a maximum 12,000 years.
Evolutionist scientists date the Tertiary Period to be 2-65 million years ago. If we use this date then Lake Eyre is missing 99.4% of the expected salt. Lake Eyre’s age is consistent with 6,000 years old.