❃ Nuclear Chemistry Evidence of 6000+ Years Earth Age ❃
❃ Nuclear Chemistry Evidence of 6000+ Years Earth Age ❃
(87) The radiogenic lead (Pb) produced in rocks dissipates and its concentration is reduced in deepest and hottest rocks over millions of years. Yet, Zircon crystals taken from different depth show that the amount of radiogenic lead is equal. This refutes the theory that the deeper rocks were formed 5.4 billion years ago, or even that they are millions of years old. The evidence proves that the deeper rocks and the superficial rocks were formed at the same time within thousands of years only. This confirms the age of the earth is about 6000 years old.
(88) Helium is found in minerals: Uranium and thorium are radioactive. They turn eventually into lead and in the process they generate helium atoms. The Journal of Geophysical Research showed that helium is found at certain abundance in zircon crystals in Precambrian granitic rock. The helium does indeed seep out quickly over a wide range of temperatures. The RATE project tested anonymously many samples and found that in fact, all the helium still in the zircons, these crystals (and since this is Precambrian basement granite, by implication the whole earth) could not be older than 14,000 years. The data give a date of 5,680 (± 2,000) years. This is definite evidence that the age of the earth is conform to the Biblical narratives in Genesis.
(89) Helium is found in the earth rocks. If the age of the earth is millions or billions of years old, as evolutionists propose, then there would be no more helium remaining in any rock. If such radioactive decay took place for billions of years, all helium will be released in the earth atmosphere. The source of helium, in industry, is extracted from the rocks. A study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research shows that helium produced by radioactive decay in deep, hot rocks has not had time to escape. Thus the dating of the rocks to be billions, (or even millions), of years old is false. Helium presence in rocks is consistent with an age of the earth about 6,000 years old.
(90)The atmospheric composition today contains only 0.05% of helium. Helium exists in two isotopes 3He2 and 4He2. These two isotopes escape constantly to the outer space at different flux rates due to their masses.
The ratio of 3He2 to 4He2 today is 1.4E-6. The atmosphere from 0 to 100 kilometers up is quite fixed with minor deviations. The atmosphere between 100 and 800 kilometers contains atomic oxygen. Oxygen molecule dissociates into free radical atoms and helium becomes the most abundant element. The atmosphere above 800 kilometers contains helium as the most abundant element. The periphery of the Earth atmosphere (interplanetary region) is abundant with Hydrogen gas. When we calculate the amount of helium present and the flux in and flux out, we find that the age of the earth is less than 10,000 years old.
(91)Polonium-218 (84Po218) Radioactive Halos, Radiohalos, disprove the evolutionist geological dating theories. Pleochroic halos occur in certain types of igneous rock that contain minerals such as zircon and monazite. Traces of certain radioactive elements, in the form of discoloration are called halos. For a more discussion, please visit the Institute of Creation Research. Here is the highlight listing: (A) Polonium is a radioactive element. (B) It has isotopes from 84Po118 to 84Po219 with varying half-life for each isotope and varying radiation for each isotope. (C) Dr. Robert V. Gentry, a Nuclear Chemist and Physicist, examined the granite sample for 84Po218. (D) 84Po218 has a half-life of 3.1 minute. It emits alpha radiation at 99.98% and it emits beta radiation at 0.02%. (E) Dr. Gentry discovered that the granite had Po218 micro atomic halos (holes) indicating that Po218 was trapped in the granite and then it decayed, hence the evidence of leaving the atomic holes which appear as halos. (F) Dr. Gentry used laser and mass spectrometry technique and arrived at highly accurate results. (G) Based on this research, the Evolution theory and the Big Bang theories are false. They propose that the entire earth was molten lava. But, Po218 could not exist and produce the micro atomic holes in the granite because it has a half-life of 3.10 minutes only. "Orphan" Po218 radiohalos, having no evidence of their mother elements, imply accelerated rock formation. (H) Granite is a common type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. This rock consists mainly of quartz, mica and feldspar. The granite samples in which these halos were found are "primordial," and therefore are representative of the Earth's crust at the time of its formation. (I) Granite is the basement rock under every continent. And, it would be impossible for the earth to once be a molten mass. (J) Further evidence, if granite is melted, it becomes Rhyolite and does not turn back again into granite. (K) Po210 radiohalos indicate that Jurassic, Triassic, and Eocene formations in the Colorado plateau were deposited within weeks of one another, not hundreds of millions of years apart as required by the conventional time scale. (L) A criticism by Dr. Baillieul claims that another source of the halos which are caused by alpha radiation, is the decay of Radon 222. Radon 222 decays to Polonium 218, and is also part of the decay series of Uranium 238. Since Uranium 238 has half-life of approximately 4.5 billion years. But the issue here is the escape for the helium gas and also the Radon gas, which Dr. Baillieul did not address in this criticism. The fact that these gases remain trapped indicates very rapid formation. (M) Therefore, the Polonium 218 halos are consistent with the Biblical account. Granites must have been formed by fast and rapid sedimentation of huge masses during the flood of Noah. This trapped and sealed the radioactive Po218. Thus, this is consistent the age as about 6,000 years old.
(92) Petroleum contains radioactive C14 which proves that the beginning of its formation is a few thousand years ago only. The Biblical account is that gigantic organic deposits, plants and animals, were made due to the Global Flood of Noah by the sweeping waters. The presence of C14 indicates such a probability and refutes the evolutionist scientists who believe in millions of years age for petroleum. The age is about 4000 years old.
(93) Uranium-238 decays and produces a final stable element Lead-206. The nuclear equation counting for gamma radiation also is as follows,
238U92 >> alpha + gamma + 234Th90 >> beta + gamma + 234Pa91 >> beta + gamma + 234U92 >> alpha + gamma + 230Th90 >> alpha + gamma + 226Ra88 >> alpha + gamma + 222Rn86 >> alpha + gamma + 218Po84 >> alpha + gamma + 214Pb82 >> beta + gamma + 214Bi83 >> beta + gamma + 214Po84 >> alpha + gamma + 210Pb82 >> beta + gamma + 210Bi83 >> beta + gamma + 210Po84 >> alpha + gamma + 206Pb82
The beginning product is Uranium 238U92 and the end product of the decay is Lead 206Pb82
Radioisotope Decay Half-Life
Uranium 238 (238U92) 4.5 billion years
Thorium 234 (234Th90) 24 days
Protactinium 234 (234Pa91) 1.2 minutes
Uranium 234 (234U92) 240,000 years
Thorium 230 (230Th90) 75,000 years
Radium 226 (226Ra88) 1,600 years
Radon 222 (222Rn86) 3.8 days
Polonium 218 (218Po84) 3.1 minutes
Lead 214 (214Pb82) 27 minutes
Bismuth 214 (214Bi83) 20 minutes
Polonium 214 (214Po84) 0.000160 second
Lead 210 (210Pb82) 22 years
Bismuth 210 (210Bi83) 5 days
Polonium 210 (210Po84) 138 days
Lead 206 (206Pb82) Stable
The radiometric method, theoretically, is used to determine the age of rocks. In theory, we calculate the remaining 238Uranium, the amount of 206Lead that has built up due to the radioactive decay, and the original amount of 204Lead which is not created by any known decay process. Scientists can calculate an approximate age based on the decay rate of 238U and the ratios of 238U to 204Pb and 206Pb to 204Pb. Evolutionist scientists start with false presuppositions, such as all radiometric dating is absolutely accurate, and that the universe is 12 billion years old, thus they make assumptions about the original natural abundance of 238Uranium. Both presuppositions are completely false. Radiometric dating is not accurate methodology. Factors causing erroneous and unreliable results of radiometric dating are: (1) The initial amount of the radiogenic daughter isotope is known, which is completely false. We do not know the original amount of the daughter radiogenic isotopes. (2) The natural abundance of the radioactive parent isotope is known, which is completely false. We do not know the original amount of the original radioactive parent isotope. (3) The daughter product migrated into, or out of, the closed rock system is accurately known, which is completely false. (4) The rate of decay is stable, which is false because scientific studies prove variation in the rate of radioactive decay. (5) The Isochron dating has the same sources of error, although its proponents claim that it does not need to know the initial amount of the radioactive parent and daughter isotopes, which is not true. (6) Uniformitarianism, which is being rejected even by a rising number of evolutionist scientists. (7) The system must be closed, which is not true on planet Earth. All systems are open on planet Earth. (8) There is absolutely no contamination, which is false. The age of the earth remains consistent with 6,000 years old.
(94) Carbon 14 is radioactive. Its half life is short, 5,730±40 years. There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon on Earth: 99% of the carbon is C12, 1.1% is C13. C14 is present as 1 part per trillion of the carbon in the atmosphere. C14 goes into beta decay and it becomes Nitrogen-14. The primary natural source of carbon-14 on Earth is cosmic ray, including solar wind, action upon nitrogen in the atmosphere, and it is therefore a cosmogenic nuclide. When present in the air, it can be deposited as carbon molecules into the ground. If we assume that at the origin of the earth C14 was made at the same rate, then we can determine the age of the earth, by calculating the half-life decay of C14 and the remaining (residual), C14 in deep rocks. The nuclear equations are:
N14 + neutron >> proton + C14
C13 + neutron >> gamma + C14
O17 + neutron >> alpha + C14
It would need a neutron flux many orders of magnitude stronger than observed today. When we take the accepted natural abundance of C14, which is 1 part per trillion, and calculate the residual amount using its known half-life, then we have the following findings: It cannot be used at all beyond 50,000 years, as the measurable residual C14 is exactly 3.23117426778527E-36% of all the carbon. C14 cannot be used if the age of the earth is beyond 50,000 years, because it cannot exist in any primordial or old rocks and also it will not be detectable, it will be a zero. After 50,000 years C14 is virtually undetectable. Furthermore, in radiometric dating, C14 cannot be used, with accuracy, to determine the absolute age of any object past 10,000 years. Theory would predict a very strong correlation between nitrogen content and C14 activity. Consequently, high-Nitrogen samples should be “dated” far younger. This would be serious enough to invalidate radiocarbon dating completely.
The fact that there is a measurable natural abundance of C14 in old rocks indicates that the age of the earth is less than 10,000 years old, and actually it about 6000 years old.
Evolution believing scientists believe that carboniferous rocks, (rocks that contain carbon), date from the end of the Devonian period, 539.2 million years ago. But, the fact that it contains C14 is evidence of this false dating. The residual amount of C14 after one million years only, is 2.08809742975953E-62 which is impossible to measure. It is basically a zero. Scientific evidence proves that radiometric methods are inherently erroneous, (except for a maximum range of 10,000 years). Dr. Baumgardner says that "the production of C14 by thermal neutrons at presently observed levels in unable, by several orders of magnitude, to account for the C14 levels we measure. The true scientific interpretation here is that the earth is young, thus the amount of C14 is correct and consistent with an age of the earth about 6,000 years ago.
(95) Diamonds are dated to be millions, (hundreds of millions), of years old, but they do contain C14 which indicate that the evolutionist scientists dating is false. C14 cannot exist beyond 50,000 years because it is radioactive and it decays into nitrogen (N14). Such radiation is not from background interference because the technique used, AMS, doesn’t measure radiation but counts atoms. The mean of the C14/C ratios in Dr Baumgardner’s diamonds was close to 0.12±0.01 pMC, well above that of the lab’s background of purified natural gas (0.08 pMC). Dr. Baumgardner attempted to nullify the results by claiming the Uranium in diamond causes a cluster decay of radium isotopes. But, diamonds have to be 99% uranium and not carbon. Another attempt to nullify C14 significance in diamond is by claiming that neutron bombardment of N14 can produce C14, but the amount produced from possible N14 is less than 1% of the actual amount of C14 discovered in diamonds. Also, to accept the possible of neutron bombardment making new C14 would require cosmic neutrons to be over a million times more than those found today, for at last 5,000 years, which is false. And, definitely, we can exclude contamination of diamonds, once formed, from the air. Diamonds have C14, thus proving that their age is within a couple of thousand years only.
(96) Carbon-14 (C14) is found in fossilized woods which indicates that fossilized wood age is a few thousand years at the most. Fossilization begins within a few years of the impregnation of wood in mineral or hyper mineral water or medium. Wood fossils can be found as ashes, charred, interlacing coal layers, or whole. They are found in many strata, such as below the basaltic layers, in claystone, siltstone, sandstone, and many other types of layers. Certain tree trunks survived the molten lava, the bark and wooden structure helped to protect the tree truck blocks to survive and not to burn. The basaltic layer sealed the wood and thus there is not contamination of these fossils. Evolutionist scientists gave several to hundreds millions of years age to the wood fossils using radiometric methods. But the presence of C14 is clear indication that they were fossilized only between a 100-3000 years ago. C14 in fossilized wood is evidence that the age of plants is less than 6017 years ago.